Moderator Kathleen Koch opened the final plenary session by posing a question about the recent rise of nationalist feelings and what it means for the rest of the world. Are countries beginning to turn inward? The debate focused on ways to achieve a balance between the need for national self-determination and the creation of state institutions. It is also vital to ensure good governance, regardless of geography. Speakers made a theoretical distinction between characteristics of patriotism and nationalism. They then applied that theory to case studies such as Russia, the United States, Israel, and Kurdistan.